Goat Milk (GM) - Soap that is made by using goat's milk as the liquid to dissolve the lye into.
Hot Proccess Soap (HP) - Soap that is made by further cooking the soap after trace, usually above 170°F. Hot processed soap is cooked until saponification is complete.
Hydrogenated - An unsaturated soft oil that has been converted to a saturated oil. This is done with hydrogenation which is a process of adding hydrogen gas to an unsaturated oil.
Melt and Pour (MP) - A soap base that has a high ratio of solvents. This makes the soap melt very easily and able to withstand re-melting. No lye is necessary when using MP as it has already been saponified.
pH - A measure of the acidity or basicity of a solution. A pH less than 7 is acidic and a pH greater than 7 is basic. Soap will have a pH of 9 - 10.5.
PKO - An abbreviation for palm kernel oil.
Saponification - The chemical reaction that occurs when a strong akali is combined with whole oils. Soap and glycerin are the end products.
Superfatting - The process of adding extra whole oil ingredients. This makes a gentler soap and ensures the the soap is not caustic hot. Superfatting should be limited to about 5%, much more than that and the soap will be prone to becoming rancid. Superfatted soap can also lead to a softer bar of soap.
Trace - A noticable thickening of the soap while mixing. This is an indication that the ingredients are mixed well enough as to not separate. The soap will leave a "trace" on top of the soap mixture before disappearing back into the soap mixture. This is also an idication that saponification has started.